1969 and 1970

1969 and 1970

[These notes were recorded in a brown Auckland Grammar School notebook. The numbers were added on 13th May 1970.

From then (note #122) onward all notes were also dated.]

1. A Robot: can see, hear, move muscles, speak and feel his movement, remember.

2. Information comes in on ears, eyes, and feeling. Information goes out on muscles and speech.

3. To move or speak it has a recording of all it can do and it just combines these recordings.

4. Information (Input) comes in. It tests if it is familiar i.e. has recorded it before. If not familiar; it has interest, it switches attention. If familiar; pays no attention, uses it to do something.

5. Take sight: Input familiar; no attention, interprets it into a command. That is it knows what to do or relates with words. Unfamiliar; interest (always trying to understand) remembers i.e. relates with a word or movement.

6. Take hearing: Input familiar; no attention or interprets it into a command. Relates it with a picture. Then finds a command (or just interest) i.e. records Unfamiliar; interest (always trying to understand) remembers i.e. relate with picture or movement.

7. Take feeling: Input familiar; no attention or use it to do something. Unfamiliar; interest, remembers it (always trying to understand)

8. Doing things (output) as a result of some input that it is recognized and is obeying or from eventually understanding by thinking and then realizing what to do.

9. Take Voice: From it hearing someone telling it to speak or from seeing something which it knows what will happen and speaks from what it feels or sees being interpreted into words.

10.  Take moving: From hearing a command or seeing.

11.  If it is to do things it will have to want to do them. We will have to have taught it how to do it. It will eventually do things from speech commands. Therefore it has to learn how to interpret speech. It will have to have concepts of actions before it can interpret speech into concepts. Therefore first see things, then hear words and relate them with what it sees. Soon feel and hear things and relate words with them. But it won’t do anything physical. So we have to put in it a recording of what it can do in actions and speech. We could make it talk and act and it could learn to trigger action and speech on its own. Then learn to relate words with what it does itself. Actually relating words with things comes later than learning to relate (objects) sight and feeling and hearing with things that it likes and dislikes.

12.  We can tell it what it dislikes and likes. What it learns, that is combinations of movements or sounds can be recorded together and the automatic unit can repeat or do something which the mind has started and the automatic unit has carried on while the attention has been switched to another input or output message.

13.  What happens to information (Input) which is not being paid attention to? It goes through the attention automatic system to see if anything is wrong or different. If so attention is paid to it. If not it disappears out of the system, lost forever. I.e. a change will cause it to pay attention.

14.  On feeling sight and sound is a mechanism such that if intensity is too high senses are protected. Also pain is brought about which will give an automatic no!  in memory.

15.  No how can it do all these things by the fundamental operations? It can switch its attention. It can tell whether something is similar or different. It can read off a recording. It can record input.

16.  Feeling can not be remembered. It is just used to check movements. No!

17.  What are we going to do when we have taught it something incorrectly i.e. taught it to like something it should not have?

18.  When it experiences something it has not experienced before it should be interested in it and looking for something to do as a reaction to it. It will be looking to see if it should like or hate etc.

19.  Learning is the process of gaining experience on what to do when something happens.

20.  When a baby experiences something and pays attention if it has no result which is pleasing the baby soon learns to disregard it.

21.  At birth a lot of actions are reflexive or automatic but as they grow they learn to take over these actions and to control them to get a desired result or to produce a result which will bring pleasure.

22.  We can supply what is wrong and right, what is good and bad, what is liked and not liked and when it refers back to see whether something is right or wrong, good or bad, liked or not liked it picks the latest reference for this.

23.  Right at the start why is it going to do anything? We will have auto reflexes which will cause it to do something. This will start it off.

24.  In doing a calculation in its mind it might want to remember a figure just calculated. It will be able to scan its memory in different amounts and to find how to scan its memory for this figure it will scan whole memory to see how it did it before. Then it will scan just the past few seconds. Soon it will know by an automatic learning process just to scan the last part of its memory. This will become a habit and learned whenever it wants a recently calculated figure it will know where to scan. This would be an internally learnt thing to do. This sort of thing could be a habit of the centre unit that is recorded in its own separate memory.

25.  We need a central control unit to regulate reading, recalling memory, switching of sensors. This central control unit might have its own memory.

26.  Since feeling can not be remembered let us have a different memory (cerebellum) for feeling which will only record feelings which have not been recorded before. This will then be able to be read off to move muscles.

27.  Let this cerebellum be in the main memory but just let it have the above properties. This will enable muscle action to be associated with sight and hearing.

28.  Central control can do the following:
       a. Switch consciousness to different senses or parts of senses.
       b. Switch an action to automatic.
       c. Recall any part of memory.
       d. Read off which would cause it to do that thing.
       e. Read off which would be placed through the memory and recall again.

29.  This is follows on from 22. This could be in the form of 3 messages, a No signal, a Yes signal and a neutral signal.

30.  Nothing which has been recorded is recorded again. So as time passes everything is generalised. All the little things are missed out before something is done and therefore the latest record is recalled first and eventually the reasons are not looked into.

31.  Therefore the control on what area is recalled is most important. It can control so it recalls everything in one section, one section after or before another and similar ones.

32.  Does not have to compare a pattern over a time period. If one thing turns out to be same it will look forward and have a look to see what should be coming next and if it is reinforced by the next input the pattern is reinforced. If the next input is different the pattern is not reinforced, putters out.

33.  Across the attention device is an automatic reflex which compares all 3 senses with last recording any big change will (be) cause attention to switch. 

34.  The first 100 neurons will have 4 states to show sound sight or feel and inner ear. This neuron has to be same for a recall – 1 neuron = 10 bits.

35.  To associate or recognize a pattern over a time.

36.  When it does something it has to read off as a series of frames.

37.  Brain mechanisms.
     1)Attention can be switched to:

           (a) Sight and parts of sight
           (b) Sound and parts of sound
           (c) Feeling and parts of feeling
           (d) Replay of memory and parts of memory
When attention switched input is remembered and recalled at same time.
     2)Everything will be recalled.
     3)Read off memory:

           (a) into output except sight
           (b) into memory and recall takes place automatically

38.  When it records something in first 100 neurons it will do something and what it does will be recorded in another 10 or so neurons under the record.

39.  If input comes in recall takes place, no similarities, nothing done. Then if we have recorded in last 10 neurons a command it will do it when the second input comes in and is recalled similar enough to first input to do command.

40.  Can we record a negative?

41.  When something is recalled it has to be associated with something. Everything has to have something to do associated with it.

42.  In recall the recall is taken place going back in time and when something is found which is familiar it stops any other thing from coming forth, i.e. latest similar thing is recalled.

43.  Some input comes in from sight, is unfamiliar, puts into operation reflex on attention so anything different will be attended to. Sight input familiar records fact it is familiar.

44.  Muscle input unfamiliar: records it automatically of course. It looks for associations. It could try to read it off to output.

45.  Muscle input familiar: records familiar, looks ahead for what was done. If negative after was done choice of another thing to do, does it or looks underneath for what was done here recorded, looks ahead to negative or have recorded with other inputs. 

46.  We will have the Rob learn muscles before anything else. Brain mechanisms before muscles.

47.  How to learn to look ahead proportional to similarity or that is the reading ahead has to be flexible in that it could read ahead to look for a negative sign or for some particular aspect.

48.  If something has just been read off to memory when recall acts the last read off is not counted because it is the same.

49.  Set a limit on how much it has to look a head, about 20 frames, 2sec. or 3sec.s. No! It has to be able to think and go ahead looking for what it did after something. How could have this so that if it doesn’t find negative within ~ 20-30 frames it does it?

50.  Brain should be able to recall a pattern of things over a time and also a combination of smaller concepts that take up one frame, i.e. the ‘read’ concept.

51.  Associate between 2 frames by the ‘same’ concept be recorded and then the thing it associated with has to be in one of the other two senses.

52.  Input comes in recalled, memorized it is either associated with some other sense or something is done.

53.  Let’s have the read off mechanism such that it can only read off sight patterns into memory and only read off sound and feeling into voice and muscles. In this way it could not recollect the sound or feel of something without it experiencing it. So in this way sounds and feelings can be put into sight association but can’t associate a sound with a picture. No!

54.  I can recollect what something sounds like and feels like. I associate a picture with a voice etc. I never associate a voice with a face just seen, but will associate a face with a voice just heard.

55.  So when recall takes place looking for a picture to associate with it.

56.  Association with a picture is automatic. It will have all its operations recorded. They are replay in memory, replay output.

57.  We have to put in it what it has to do after something is the same and after it does one of the brain mechanisms or if you don’t want to put in it what it has to do you have to teach it. You have to have a set of rules for what it has to do after something. So we break it down to fundamental operations, i.e.
     What to do after negative sign
     What to do after something is same
     What to do after read off into memory
     What to do after read off into muscles
     What to do after read off into voice
     What to do after switch (sense) attention

58.  A lot of these brain mechanisms are done in different situations often depending on the information coming in.

59.  So in humans we see, hear, feel, taste, and smell and either we recognize it or don’t recognize it. We only sense one sense at a time. Depending on what it is we ignore it, use it to coordinate muscles (in case of feel) so that a desired objective is accomplished. If desired objective is not accomplished we try to accomplish it. High intellect has a will where by things are done not in accordance with direct desires.

60.  Now how does a baby learn some of the basic things? By trial and error (random) punishment and trying again to do thing with least trouble or hurt to its desires each time not doing the same thing i.e. realizing what will happen if it did the same thing. First it has to have a no. of things to do to be able to try one. In a baby desires and wants are programmed for survival and these reflexes act as a basic foundation and guidance to its behaviour.

61.  Cerebellum is a subconscious brain which learns to modify behaviour, co-ordinate behaviour, i.e. balance is one of its operations. (Could automatic be one of its functions?)

62.  In man what he does next is dependent on what he desires or what to do next. His wants are for self survival, food, sexual desires, sensory stimulation; some desires have priority over others. Desire for no pain is high priority but over all the will has control i.e. mind can conquer desires.

63.  Now our robot has no desires so we have to have some system of adapting it to what we want it to do. How can we get a robot to choose or teach it to?

64.  The no signal can be pain and pain is a mechanism such that if too much strain is put on a muscle it lets the brain know. The no signal would be pain in all its muscles.

65.  The 10 cells below 100 which record what brain mechanisms are done is a control centre. It will record what is done in certain situations and will learn how to do things with certain inputs and situations through trial and error and (reward) punishment. In a human of my age this is a nearly automatic thing called thinking and I know what to do when I want to think - cognition. It has become automatic and the automatic thinking process is all that is seen by psychologists. They can not see the subdivisions of the automatic process of thinking. They do not realize that thinking has to be learned just as any other operation. In humans I would say quite a bit of thinking is reflexive built in at birth.

66.  Central control - When something is the same recorded in central control and central control goes about doing the operations it did before in the similar case. If things are different central control relies on random generator to generate a random instruction. 1 of; switch attention to sight, feeling, hearing. It can not read off because it has no reference to a (or a) memory cell to read off.

67.  Since we want it to have interest when something is different we should not have it switch its attention either. So when something is the same the fact that it is the same is recorded (and recalls if the same signal has been encountered before. After a same signal we will program it to read off central control of what happened just after the place where the same signal came from) and central control looks for what it did last time when the similar case happened. If nothing is there, i.e. it was different in the similar case to anything before it will then rely on the random generator to either, switch attention to sight, feeling, and hearing. Read off the things that happened before into either (feeling) muscles or (hearing) speech. This happens if something was there. Read off the things that happened before into memory -> or read off central control. What ever it does will be recorded in central control. Or read off central control into central control to see what happened before when this situation was encountered. So the random generator can cause the central control to read off its own recording into its memory and thereby recall or see if any command it has done before is familiar. If it is familiar (familiar recorded and recalled we have programmed in central control after SC to RC) it causes random generator to generate one of the (above) commands which would read off what was after the similar command.

68.  When it reads out something into speech or muscles this is not recorded in memory cells but the fact that it read out is recorded. Sight pictures can be recorded in memory cells from memory. So can speech and muscles. But speech and muscles are not recorded if done.

69.  The attention has a reflex action anything different coming in on a sense the attention is switched automatically and the command is recorded in central control. This can be overridden by command from central control to switch to a sense. When central control is reading off memory into memory reflex in attention is operating but when central control commands attention to switch to something it will switch and reflex will not be able to switch attention while 1 frame 1/10 sec. is being recorded.

70.  Soon the random generator is not used but when something is familiar it recalls what it has done in past see below.

71.  This [note 67.] might not be necessary since when the central control does a command it automatically records it and recalls it. When it recalls it finds it familiar it will call upon random generator. If it is familiar command it reads off commands after it. If no commands calls upon random generator. NB only a random generated command will be unfamiliar.

72.  Now we have to have our No or negative signal. It acts as a deterrent to those things we do not want it to do. If it moves a muscle in the wrong way it will get pain from that muscle. If it does something we don’t want it to we will give it pain in all its muscles. Pain will be recorded in the memory as the first trace or cell recording underneath it will be the central command instruction which will command the central control not to do that command if the pain is encountered.

73.(a) Now we have to have a direct association with the pain and the thing that was done that we did not want done. (b) If it does something and we tell it not to it could associate the ‘not to’ with something done in between the doing of the recorded thing and the telling not to do it.

74.  So we have operations
   Switch attention to Sight SAS
   Switch attention to Hearing SAH
   Switch attention to Feeling SAF
   Record fact that an input is the same SM
   Record fact that a command is same SC (not needed)
   Record command to read off memory into muscles RMF
   Record command to Read off central control RC
   Of sight Record command to Read off Memory into Memory RMMS
   Of hearing Record command to Read off Memory into Memory RMMH
   Of feeling Record command to Read off Memory into Memory RMMF
   Record command to Read off memory into speech RMH
   Command to call upon random generator for memory command GM (No)

75.  Two lots of instructions: 
     Memory instructions       Central Control instructions

76.  [as in diagram above]

77.  What commands are we going to program in behind the No or pain when it is the same? It will be a command to central control to place behind the last executed thing a No signal. This would not negate the RC or SC or GC or SM, GM but only SA? And RM?? Instructions. It would put them in a unity form such that negated SAS would be a one command able to be recalled recorded compared familiar etc.

78.  Also in memory a central control memory cell will be occupied by the negated SAs and RMs and behind each SA? and RM? will be a GM command minus the SA or RM command corresponding to the negated SA or RM. So it will generate a RM or SA command but not that one which was negated.

79.  If our inhibitory signal is to work it must be associated with the thing we want negated. Therefore we could let the similarity only be noticed if 5 out of 5 frames (memory cells) are similar in a row.

80.  Or we could start off by having it record only one frame every 1/2 sec and slowly increasing it as the no. of times we negated it decrease. Or we could have so it wouldn’t do anything until 2 sec’s had passed or it had a no signal. If one frame is read off to the muscles or voice that output will last for 1/10 sec.

81.  The senses are accumulative too averaging the sound every 1/10sec averaging the picture every 1/10 sec and averaging the movement every 1/10 sec.

82.  When it reads out to muscles or voice the first bit is used to signify whether it goes to muscles or voice. To have any similarity between any memory frames have to have that bit the same.

83.  The Automatic Unit. When a pattern of activities has been laid down in memory with all the correct commands the central control can switch to the automatic unit which will do all these things in a precise order and keep on going until stopped by the central control. If the automatic unit comes up with a difficulty it will notify central control.

84.  This automatic unit might not be necessary if the central control unit can work in milliseconds and all the time the most recent learning is used.

85.  If we have an automatic unit for muscular control only it could not rely on the central control unit. It would just receive input and it would only take 1 recall to find what has to be done next.

86.  [This item refers back to item 79 and 80.] If we have this we could have a bit to record whether this frame has been found similar. When 5 of these bits have been found in a row we could do something. The fact that it is similar is also recorded out! Not right.

87.  This system of bits could be used also to reference where the Read off instruction should read off. When something is the same we have SM recorded. Then we get a GM which could RC or at the reference bit or could we have an RM instruction a different part of memory i.e. the latest frame recorded which had been recalled also, or to read off the frame referenced by the bit or bits which is before the frame now being dealt with, or read off the frame referenced by the bit or bits which is after the frame now being dealt with. In this last case if it is the 1st recall this frame after the one being dealt with will be the latest frame recorded.

88. These RMMS, RMMH, RMMF could either read off that which was found to be similar or that which was after what was found to be similar.

89.  The 1st would be done to obtain a new reference which was similar either before or after. The second would be to find out what happened or what was done.

90.  A random generator is no good. We have to have the similar test in a crude form. i.e. If memory is only 2 seconds old input comes in and it is different to every thing so it randomly generates something to do No! This is wrong.

91.  We should have it take the thing that is closest to is the most similar to. It might be completely different but it is the most similar thing in memory at that time. In this way it will be a random generation of things done.

92.  When we tell it something is wrong or push the ‘no’ button shall we let it learn what to do when it’s not meant to do something or shall we program it so when it receives a ‘no’ signal it will know it did something wrong? In man I feel his reflexes are programmed for survival and automatically react to a ‘no’ signal but the brain does not always automatically react to a ‘no’ signal e.g. pain. The brain can learn to follow the automatic reflexes or it can overpower the reflex and feel the pain. S the brain can do something it is not meant to. So if we program the brain to react to the ‘no’ signal it will never be able to do something it has been told not to do.

93.  If we go about thinking of the central control as a separate unit it will receive a signal from a recall test telling it whether the input that just came in is similar or dissimilar to something in memory. The result will be the input to the central control. It will go through central control as input does go through the memory (i.e.) that is it will be recorded and recalled. 

94.  What the central control unit will do cannot be recorded like the muscle movement is recorded and that record is read out to do the thing. What I mean to say is that the reading off of memory can [not] be done by us and the record of that reading off is stored / recorded in the central control and when the reading off of memory is required it could read off the record of how to read off memory. This can be done for the switching of attention. Attention will be switched by the automatic reflex connected to the attention and the record of this switch will be recorded in central control so it can be read off to switch attention when attention needs or is wanted to be switched by the central control. This is to say the mind is shaped by the reflexes. (mind learns from the reflexes)

95.  The central control will receive a similar signal. It will read off what was done in the frame that was similar and will do it. Read off the info in central control at the similar location and put into working module of central control.

96.  We must have switch attention to memory as well as switch attention to sight, sound and feel and it will only be able to read off memory into memory 1 or 2 or 3? frames every 1/10 sec. so that the reading off or thinking will occur as fast as things in the outside world and won't use up so many frames it will also slow down its operation so we can keep up with it and teach it when it goes wrong.

97.  And since it goes through the attention system attention can be focused on any part of the frame any aspect of it.

98.  Sight and attention: I can pay attention to a spot on the wall and my attention is on a specific very small area of the retina. I also can pay attention to something out of the corner (side) of my eye. I can stare at one thing but not see it but see something out of the corner of my eye but not in so much detail as if I looked straight at it. So my attention can switch not only to sight sound and feel but to a specific area of sight or even just the general picture of what I’m looking at. Now when you imagine something you combine the small specific sight areas into a general picture. Like a man with green togs a straw hat walking on a beach, each specific thing is seen in memory and then combined to form a general picture.

99.  Feeling and attention: attention can be given to any specific part and also to any general area or the whole area. I feel we will have to do this in my robot, but this will involve many different types of commands and possibilities may be not able to be recorded in the limited central control memory. Also notice the ear can concentrate on different sounds, voices and cars, motors and music while they are all coming in at once. I.e. they filter out the stuff to concentrate on.

100. Therefore why not make the attention another sense like eye, ear and muscles? When I refer to feeling in humans I mean actual feel such as heat, pressure etc. but the robot won’t have this so think of feel as the feedback from the muscles i.e. position and action of joints and muscles. So with every frame may be 3 or 4 (= 30 or 40 bits) neurons is preserved for the position of the attention at that frame.

101. Then we don’t have to have the 1st 2 bits of a frame for the differentiation of the input from sound, sight and muscles. The 3 or 4 neurons will supply this and they will have to be identified for any frame to be identical. Memory is made up of frames. 1 Frame is recorded every 1/10 of a sec. or 10 frames per sec.

102. I frame consists of 100 neurons and 1 neuron consists of 10 bits. So 1000 bits of information a 1/10 sec. 10,000 bits every second. If it is to last 50 years. 50x365x24x3600 x10000 = 120x365x36x1000x10,000

103. 432x365x10,000x10,000 = 1.578x10^13 divide by 2 if only works 1/2 a day = approx. 8x10^12 bits (might big)

104. If these neurons containing 3 condition of the attention are read off they will change the attention to that condition.

105. This attention condition is sort of an address and when the frame is read out the frame goes to that address to be executed.

106. So all central control is interested in is reading off into external function or internal memory. When the attention is switched by the control of the brain we have a read off signal which reads off the condition of the attention wanted, to the attention device.

107. When a frame is read off into memory again the attention will always switch to this, i.e. this will take precedence over all other input.  - (Added later- most likely 24th May 1971) What will the attention condition be on that remembered frame, not the same as before, put a 1 in a certain bit to indicate it is a concept of the brain.

108. Can we split brain operations into short term and long term operations? no need to 24th May 1971 146, 147 

109. Must look at the process where something is done and the ears hear what is said, what happens etc.

110. Must consider association and what jumps in time are taken to get the associated picture etc.

111. It can learn but if we want it to learn to think it must have the capacity to do so before it can learn to.

112. When it (we) comes to a situation it (we) has (have) done before it (we) is (are) able to recall the pertinent facts relating to this past incident and immediately conclude what to do or not to do. The reading the next frame after a same signal is meant for this function but not correct. We should have something like read ahead for next picture or sound or feel or pain. We are trying to breakdown the association function of the brain into some fundamental steps.

113. Association can be achieved by when a same signal is recorded the next frame with a recording from a different sense is read off.

114. Association will be achieved by this method because in recording the incident in the past the attention is switched when the learning situation takes place.

115. So sound will be able to be associated with sight and muscles and muscles with the other 2 and sight with the other 2. Sight cannot be associated with sight such as in reading where a word is read and a picture seen. Does this take place or is the word associated with its sound and the sound with the picture?

116. Now, do we need the pain (no signal) in a form such as the brain understands it before starting or can it learn what the pain or no signal means by the reflex action or by learning? Can this form of association provide us with a way of teaching it what the no signal means without programming about the no signal before hand?

117. In this way the first frame of that concept will come to be the concept and the frame might not be enough to represent the concept.

118. What happens when brain reads out a muscle position which is completely different to position of the muscles? Muscles won't be able to move to this position in 1/10 sec. I feel need for a continuous read process so when reads out a voice sound it reads out complete sound not just a 1/10 sec. of sound.

119. 4 things to be solved
           a/ past memory long time ago.
           b/ brain mechanisms for short term memory.
           c/ attention
           d/ automatic system and brain mechanisms to switch on and off.
           e/ learning of memory functions

120. Things to think about: The brain memory has to make concepts of everything. Concepts are always related to a change in environment. I feel memory is too detailed in any change it might record.

121. About reinforcement of learning. The no signal (pain) will be recorded in the main memory as another type of sensory input. There will be no programmed central control function to react to pain but the reflexes will be programmed to do the reacting to pain and the robot will learn what to do after the reflexes reacted. See every stimulus must have a response. Pain is a stimulus. What is the response? Response is a complicated muscular movement or crying. A baby makes trial and error movement to stop pain. Each movement having been done before when pain was felt not necessarily from the same muscles or part of body. Therefore by this time baby has learnt to associate concepts (key words).

122. Association a memory function. If it has learnt to associate what was the reinforcing agent for the learning of memory functions. Can we have association of memory functions so that after one memory function done it will associate - remember what was done after that memory function in the past and do it.

13th May 1970

[On this date all the preceding paragraphs were numbered. Number 122 was used twice]

122. From 3 - The brain would have a record of the concept of a movement. The cerebellum would co-ordinate this concept with the present position of the muscles and put the concept into a (language) code the muscles would respond to.

123. From 14 - This automatic no will cause a reflex action just like in a baby (crying when aloud noise is heard, struggling when held rigid). Will such reflexes be necessary or will we have different reflexes because we want a different purpose for it?

124. From 32 - The human brain does not seem to record concepts like in a regular array but distinguishes concepts by a change in sensory input by a regular array I mean a picture every 1/10sec. It seems to record each picture that it sees. So if eyes stay absolutely still it records that picture. Only when eyes move to new spot on scene being viewed does it record another picture. Thus it is a change in the sensory input that causes a picture to be recorded. This is why I wrote 33. (73(b) would not be possible) (solves 117,118) Also a new picture recorded when staring at a constant scene if one changes one's attention and back.

125. From 62-63 - In man his emotions and desires are a very complex mechanism for the basic punishment and reward necessary for learning situations.

126. From 65 - Thinking is going to be the doing of a sequence of basic brain mechanisms. Different sequences will result in a different way of thinking, or approaching a problem i.e. of how to solve the problem. Like in (24) ok. So it will try different sequences of brain mechanisms and get different results. When it then wants that result it will associate the brain mechanisms that it did to get that result and then do them.

127. 2 questions:
           1/ How will it go about doing different sequences of brain mechanisms?
           2/ How will it know what result it wants (or is wanted of it) in a certain case?

128. From 96 - Should the reading off of memory record into memory again take place at 1 frame 1/10 sec. or should it be sped up?

129. From 97 - Very interesting idea but I don't think necessary. Each frame is a pure concept.

130. From 124 - A test for this is to look at one spot and have no change in attention and see how many times you can record that concept i.e. a picture.

131. A test for association, take a sound or feel or picture in your memory and continually recall it to your conscious again.

132. Consider recognition: of a tune say if it is slowed down or speed up. The concept of a note. How long does the sound have to last before you make a second concept of it?

133.[There is no paragraph numbered 133]

134. When I think, there seems to be an automatic mechanism which immediately converts my concept or concepts into words or speech which is not spoken but just recalled - read off into memory again.

135. There seems to be 3 memories, short term, long term which records events, what happened, and immediate memory which seems to have recorded how to do things. That is we don't have to think back in our long-term memory to remember what to do when something happens.

136. The emotional attitude toward something acts as another separate memory associated with something which helps in the recall process as an extra way of associating. The emotional state can have a large degree of change from pain to neutral to ecstasy.

28th June 1970

137. Concept formation: How many concepts are made of a constant tone or a still picture? I feel the duration before a second concept is formed can vary considerably when the input is constant. An exercise to understand this is to stare at one spot for a long time and try introspection of your attention and concept formation of the spot. One loses attention toward it and then pays attention to it again thus recording another concept. Similarly with a tone.

138. Does the attention pay attention to something which is being done as the record is read out to the outputs or does it record the resultant "feedback" after the thing is done or is the original record read off straight into memory as it is done. Obviously for automatic output nothing is recorded.

139. The brain mechanism seems to have a separate sort of brain i.e. they record inputs i.e. similarity, unfamiliarity, dislikes or no signal recalled, and the no signal straight from something done if this does exist (see 142). It also does output i.e. recall read out and associate (different ways), switch attention.

140. When I’m trying to pay attention to a sound which I can’t hear my mind seems to think of that sound and I try to pay attention harder. Maybe this is a means by which the brain can switch the attention to the appropriate frequency of sound that is to be heard i.e. reading off a memory of the sound gives the attention the address location to attend to.

25th July 1970

141. All the addresses of attention can be negated or changed so that when a feeling is recalled the address location is changed so the brain knows it has been recalled and did not come straight from the senses. This in effect doubles all the possible addresses.

142. Pain is the feeling which is recorded in the brain. The no signal is the brain mechanism input which comes with or from a pain signal from the senses. The pain may be recorded and recalled. Instead of a same signal being given to the brain mechanism part there is a no signal given to the brain mechanism as input.

143. The emotions as I call them are the states of brain concerning dislikes and likes. The emotions of this robot should consist of 2 states, the dislike or 'no' state or no signal and the neutral state. There shall be no like state because this will give the robot a drive or ego to do something which it wants i.e. likes. Thus the robot will not do those things we teach it not to and it will do those things we tell it to but it will have no drive to do something we don't tell it to do or tell it not to do.

5th Dec. 1970

144. I have been trying to solve the problem of how the brain mechanism will learn: It will use a comparison between what it is after and what it is accomplishing to give it the punishment/reward necessary for learning.  Comment added on 17th Jan 1971 - "goal seeking"